Year, month | Location | Project name | Author | Significance |
---|---|---|---|---|

-2700 to -2200 | Egypt | Pyramids of the Old Kingdom | Iconic use of sloping vertical surface and building mass divided by diagonals | |

-2052 | Deir el-Bahari, Egypt | Funerary Temple of Mentuhotep | Single ramp | |

-1511 to -1480 | Deir el-Bahari, Egypt | Hatshepsut Mortuary Temple | Queen Hatshepsut and Senmut | Double ramp |

-1279 to -1213 | Luxor, Egypt | Temple of Amun-Mut-Khonsu | Started by Amenhotep III, but the important axis-shifted additions by Ramses II | Axial rotation |

-664 to -300 | Nuri, Sudan | Pyramids by Kings of Kush | Pyramidal forms | |

-585 | Greece | Geometry | Thales | Thales, one of the seven Wise Men of Greece, brings the geometry of Egypt to Greece |

-532 | Greek city of Croton, Italy | Geometry | Pythagoras | His studies of geometry were a small part of a grand view of the world and the cosmos, one in which mathematics defined the basic order of all things. Everything, he said is defined by numbers. (Solomon 1996) |

-400 to -300 | Mero in Ancient Nubia, Sudan | Pyramids | The number of pyramids in ancient Nubia 223, were double the number of pyramids of its neighbor Egypt. | |

-440 | Egypt | Pyramids | Herodotus | Herodotus see and writes about th pyramids in Egypt |

-380 | Greece | The Meno is written | Plato | Socrates: And from what line do you get this figure? Boy: From this. Socrates: That is, from the line which extends from corner to corner of the figure of four feet? Boy: Yes. Socrates: And that is the line which the learned call the diagonal. And if this is the proper name, then you, Meno's slave, are prepared to affirm that the double space is the square of the diagonal? Boy: Certainly, Socrates. |

-300 | Athens Greece, then Alexandria, Egypt | The Elements | Euclid | The Elements which presented in thirteen books all that was known of geometry and mathematics at the time. Plane geometry is presented in the first six books which have served ever since as the basis for most beginning books on the subject. Among the various subjects covered in the other books is that of solid geometry and the Platonic solids — the five regular polyhedra. While the main application of perspective is in art, it is an optical phenomenon and thus has its principal root not in art but in geometrical optics. |

-300 C. | Athens Greece, then Alexandria, Egypt | Optica | Euclid | The first text on geometrical optics, in which are defined the terms visual ray and visual cone. |

-290 to -280 | Alexandria, Egypt | Pharos, the Lighthouse | Pharos was regarded as one of The Seven Wonders of The ancient World, this Lighthouse of Alexandria was the tallest building on earth, a stone shaft faced in white marble. Of interest here is the fact that it was built on a square base then changed plan profile to an octagon then a circle. An image of the lighthouse was imprinted on Roman coins. | |

-200 | Baalbeck, Syria in present-day Lebanon | Forecourt at Temple of Jupiter | Earliest known use of the hexagon in a building complex. | |

-100 | Athens, Greece | Tower of the Winds | Believed to be the first octagonal building. | |